Title of Invention


Abstract Realistic Geometry Cartographic Imaging can be applicable in the field of Science, Technology, Medicine, Genetics, Nuclear Science, Oil Exploration, Power Engineering and all such areas where the structure and behavior of objects are to be studied and imaged. The invention is very effective in the field of medicine to investigate the functioning of different organs based on images created out of their behavioral patterns. It is a completely non-destructive method of imaging. The computer using the Kinetic Mathematical Model and Realistic Geometry Models images the structure of an object based on the behavior of the object. The parameters of the object are acquired. The collective behavioral pattern of the object and the deviation difference of these behavioral pattern is then calculated and imposed on the realistic geometry model to obtain the realistic geometry cartographic image.
Full Text This invention relates to a method for Realistic Geometry Cartographic Imaging (RGCI) and a system used mere for.
There are many techniques that are currently used for imaging objects. All of which use direct Imaging techniques. Direct Imaging means, the object to be imaged is directly subjected to Ultra Sound, X-rays, Magnetic Fields, Radio Waves etc., and a chart Image of the object is photographed or reconstructed. In some cases such Imaging can be destructive or in some areas such Imaging cannot be performed. In the Medical Field for example, there are Imaging techniques mat are Invasive or where the body has to be out open or some foreign object has to be inserted in order to Image the object (in this case the diseased organ).
The primary object of the present invention is to provide a method for Realistic Geometry Cartographic Imaging.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a system for carrying out the said method.
Realistic Geometry Cartographic Imaging is a technique by which the structure of an object or activity is mapped and reconstructed using the behavior (or function) of the object. Though the invention has a wide application, the application that the inventor used it for is in mapping (thus the term cartography) the circulation through the various blood vessels of the human heart. Here the behavior of the heart from the point of view of pressure, volume and time is closely acquired for every beat for a period of approximately 6 minutes (256 to 1024 beats). These parameters are collectively known as haemodynamics (haemo = blood & dynamics = motion).
The pressure is obtained by using a process called oscillometry method, the volume can be obtained using any of the known method like Impedance, transaortic signal modulation or Invasive methods like thermodulation, dyedelation as long as the data is beat-to-beat. The Inventor used the transaortic signal modulation technique to non-invasively obtain the volumes. The timings and the characteristics of the flow are obtained by using a vertical accelerometer. This process of obtaining all the required behavioral characteristics is called date acquisition.

Once the data is acquired and stored, a predictive kinetic model (called k-model) is constructed for the object in question (in this case the Human) using various mathematical tools and a technique called back-propagation artificial neural network. The above-acquired data is now super imposed on the k-model and we obtain the deviation difference of haemodynamics (in this case) and the flow characteristics with respect to time. In other words, to what extend has these parameters deviated from the predictive model, and what was the nature of these differences. A huge knowledge base on the functional behavior of the object is mathematically modeled, in this case the mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system. From the deviation differences, the aspect of the structural changes that can cause such deviation behavior is analyzed and then an image is reconstructed to represent me change in the structure. In this invention the human Haemodynamics (pressure, volume, time and flow characteristics) has been used to image the blood flowing through the heart muscle and the corresponding arteries and to identify if there are any blockages in the path of its flow.
The novelty of this new invention is that it is a completely non-destructive method of imaging. It does not use harmful x-rays or chemicals and completely harmless. The presently used methods especially in medical imaging uses x-rays, like angiography etc. and is invasive in nature. Further the new invention is very cost effective when compare to the conventional invasive imaging techniques.
This invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 Shows in Block Diagram of the system used for Realistic Geometry Cartographic Imaging;
Figure 2 Shows the Realistic Geometry Cartographic Imaging (RGLAOM60 View);
Figure 3 Shows the Realistic Geometry Cartographic Imaging (RGRAO30 View); and
Figure 4 Shows the Computerised Impedance Tomography (K2 - Mode), today called as cardiovascular Cartography.

The Block diagram shown in Fig. 1 is explained herein below;
Date Acquisition System
Data Acquisition is the part of the Invention that acquires the data from the object (in mis case the patient). We can divide the acquired data in to three distinct types of data sets, called channels.

(c) Vertical Accelerometry Channel: The vertical accelerometry is used to acquire data pertaining to the mechanical movements in the chest, a kind of seismic activity due to the movement of the heart muscle. The specifications are as follows:

Vertical Accelerometer
Acceleration Range
Frequency transmission bandwidth

Tourmaline Crystal Type 0.01G@ 2 milligram 0 to 200Hz

The data acquisition system has the capability of acquiring all the channels simultaneously. It has a sampling rate of 500Hz per channel and can sample seven channels at a resolution of 12 bits.
Filtering and Digitization: The signals coming from a source will be analogue in most cases. As these signals are acquired, they also gather lot of noise, these noises are to be filtered. Various filtering methods are used here, like high pass, low pass and band pass filters. The filtered signal is then digitized before passing it to the computer for storage and processing.
High Speed Computing & Processing: The computer used is a modern high speed PC with adequate memory and a math processor. This is a standard computing device used in such applications.
Printers: Printers are again a standard device that is meant to print the end result.
Kinetic Mathematical Model: As explained in the text earlier, the kinetic mathematical model is a group of algorithm and mathematical tools that mathematically depict the predicted behavior of the data in question, in this case the patients cardiovascular system.
Realistic Geometry Model: This is another mathematical model that has all the parametric information pertaining to the change in behavior to that of many possible changes that can occur in the structure being studied. In this case the physiology and pathaphysiology of the human cardiovascular system and the heart and its direct and indirect relative to a structural defect. AH these models are open-ended models, the

open-ended models, the input and outputs can be anything. Thus the application can be not only in the area the Inventor has currently applied, but also in many other fields.
Fig. 2 shows the reconstruction of the human coronary arteries (coronary artery is a system of arteries, that supply blood to the heart muscles). There are two bifurcations and three main branches. When these vessels are totally blocked "Heart Attack" occurs. The diagram shows the extend of blockages in these arteries, after measuring the flow through it. The medical profession generally knows the names of the arteries shown in this reconstruction. The bifurcations are known as Right Coronary Artery (RCA) and Left Main Coronary Artery (LM). LM divides into two main branches called Left Circumflex (CX) and Left Anterior (front) Descending (LAD). The RCA branches into Sinus Node (SN), Conas Branch (CB), Right Ventricular (RV), Acute Marginal (AcM), Posterior Lateral branch (PL), Posterior Descending (PD). The LAD branch divides into number of smaller territories called Diagonals (D) and Septal vessels (S). The CX also divides into prominent vessels called Optuse Marginals (OM). The colour code below indicates the expected percentage of blockages in the coronary arteries, for the measured reduction in blood flow through that artery.
Fig. 3 illustrates the reconstruction in another angle, to eliminate errors due to the overlapping of the images in the two views. Both views actually give die same information.
Fig. 4 is the graphical representation of the deviation difference of the measured haemodynamic parameters from the predicted nominal values. In this diagram, there are number of concentric circles. There is a concentric circle designated as "zero", and positive towards outside and negative towards the inside of me diagram. If the patch of colour is pointing towards outside, men it is a positive deviation and pointing inward than it is negative. Effectively negative or positive does not indicate healthy or diseased, but simply indicate a change. A trained Doctor will understand if the changes are normal or abnormal.
The radius of this concentric circle is designated each parameter pertaining to Pressure Volume, Time and flow pattern. The expansion of the abbreviations are as

follows; Relative Diastolic Time (rdt), Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MABP), Heart Rate (hr), Rate Pressure Product (rpp), Stroke Volume (sv), Stroke Volume Index (svi), Cardiac Index (ci), Systemic Vascular Resistance (svr), Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (svri), Left Ventricular Systolic Ejection Rate Index (lvseri), Pre-ejection Period (pep), Ventricular Ejection Time (vet), Ratio of pep and vet (pv), Indexes of pep and vet (pepi) and (veti), Electromechanical Systolic Time (qs2), qs2 index (qs2I), Valve Quotient (a2al), Oxygen Demand to supply ratio (ds), Response time of the heart (rz), Acceleration of the blood leaving the heart chamber (aci), Contractility or Force at which the blood is ejected from the heart chambers (heath) and the impedance of the chest (zo). This picture truly maps the parameters of the heart and its variation and deviations.
Usefulness of this new invention can be in all fields of Science, Technology, Medicines, Generics, Oil Exploration, Nuclear Science, Power Engineering and all other areas where structure and their behaviour has to be studied and imaged. The application of such imaging can be used very effectively in the field of medicine to investigate the functioning of different organs based on images created out of their behavioural patterns.
The new Invention of Realistic Geometry Cartographic Imaging has promising application in the field of Science, Technology, Medicine, Genetics, Nuclear Science, Oil Exploration, Power Engineering and all such areas where the structure and behaviour of objects are to be studied and imaged.
One another example, where this invention can be used is in Tsunami wanting system. Tsunamis are giant water waves caused due to turbulence deep under the ocean due to vertical displacement, caused by anything from earthquake, volcano or a powerful atomic bomb explosion. A Tsunami early warning system will have the same kind of set up discussed in the Inventor"s application, on early warning of heart attacks by measuring the blood flow to the heart muscle. But the data acquired will be different and the realistic geometry cartographic Imaging will be pertaining to the current location of the wave, the amplitude and when will it hit the shore and what will be the characteristics of the wave on impact and how long it would last, and if there would be secondary waves. Though, in this application, the acquired data is

from the sea, entirely different from what has been described above, still the end result is to map and reconstruct the structure from the function.
Various parameters indicated and identified in the above figures expresses different information arrived at by the said Imaging System.
It will be understood that die foregoing description is only illustrative of the present invention and it is not intended that the invention be limited thereto. Many other specific embodiments of the present invention will be apparent to one skilled in the art from the foregoing disclosure. All substitution, alterations and modification of the present invention, which come within the scope of the following claims, are to which the present invention is readily susceptible without departing from the spirit of the invention.

1. A method for realistic geometry cartographic imaging comprising the steps of
acquiring the data pertaining to the object under scrutiny, constructing a
predictive kinetic model using back-propagation and artificial neural network,
mapping and reconstructing the acquired data, super imposing the acquired
data on the kinetic model to obtain the realistic geometry cartographic image.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the acquired data is filtered using
standard filters and digitized before mapping.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein mapping and reconstruction is
done using the behavior or function of the object,
4. The method as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the object under
scrutiny is either human cardiovascular system.
5. A system for realistic geometry cartographic imaging comprising a data
acquisition system energized by a power supply, said system having means to
generate signals, means to focus the object for which the imaging is required,
a high-speed computer and processor to construct the predictive kinetic model,
mapping and reconstructing the acquired data and to super impose the
acquired data on the kinetic model to generate the realistic geometry model.
6. A system as claimed in claim 5, wherein a filtering and digitization circuit is connected to the data acquisition system to eliminate the noise during recording and to digitize the filtered signals.
7. A system as claimed in claim 6, wherein the filters used are high pass, low pass and band pass filters.


0090-mas-1999 abstract-duplicate.pdf

0090-mas-1999 abstract.pdf

0090-mas-1999 claims-duplicate.pdf

0090-mas-1999 claims.pdf

0090-mas-1999 correspondence-others.pdf

0090-mas-1999 correspondence-po.pdf

0090-mas-1999 description(complete)-duplicate.pdf

0090-mas-1999 description(complete).pdf

0090-mas-1999 drawings-duplicate.pdf

0090-mas-1999 drawings.pdf

0090-mas-1999 form-1.pdf

0090-mas-1999 form-13.pdf

0090-mas-1999 form-19.pdf

0090-mas-1999 form-26.pdf

Patent Number 199090
Indian Patent Application Number 90/MAS/1999
PG Journal Number 23/2006
Publication Date 09-Jun-2006
Grant Date 06-Mar-2006
Date of Filing 25-Jan-1999
Name of Patentee DR. RAJAH VIJAY KUMAR
Applicant Address NO 615, VRINDAVAN, DODDA BANASWADI, BANGALORE 560 043,
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
PCT International Classification Number A61B 05/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA