Title of Invention


Abstract The Block And block Station Automation In Single Line Bi-Directional Sections explains an Automatic Rail Traffic Control system for Bi-Directional Sections and provides a complete train control solution for single line sections. The Block and Block Stations in the sections are interconnected, which enables the Block Station to automatically change its parameters of operation, according to the movement of trains in the Block. The system classifies the status of the section into three broad categories, viz. Single train movement in adjacent Block Sections, Offensive movement in Adjacent Block Sections and Back to Back Train movement in adjacent Block Sections. The control algorithm for each category is unique and the operational parameters are according to the existing system of control. An optional Manual Control Panel, which is of Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) type, is also included in the proposed system. FIGURE 2
Full Text

Background of the Invention:
Improvements in Science and Technology have led to a number of remarkable inventions in field of Railways. Nowadays, trains run at an average speed of more than 80 Kilometers per hour. So what is required is an efficient control system so as to regulate the traffic safely, without any mishaps. In the double line sections, the control algorithm becomes very simple as the control systems of the two tracks can be isolated and each one serves only for a single direction movement alone.
Almost all the countries in the world have Rail transport. Any Railway organization will tend to lay double lines only where sufficient Freight movements are there. If Indian Railways is taken as an example, many sections are single-lined, although they have heavy Express Train Traffic. The Railway organization advocates that sections having heavy passenger traffic (with less demand for Freight) don't fetch the returns justifying for laying of the second line, which ultimately increases Railway' s gestation period, distracting them from concentrating on other vital investments.
Hence Single-line track sections become inevitable. Now what is desired is an effective control system in single line sections. In this age of Microprocessors and Nano-Sensors, it will be absurd to say that thousands of lives of passengers are in the hands of two or three people. Speaking more precisely a control, which can operate without the help of a human being, is desired. But due to practical needs, a human interface is also required. Hence we can conclude that a control system is needed which can operate all by itself, along with an optional manual mode of operation is required. This Invention exactly answers the above problem.
Demerits of the Existing System:
Today's practice for the purpose of controlling the traffic in single-line Bi-Directional section employs a system known as 'Radio Electric Token System' for controlling the Blocks and 'Route Relay Interlocking and Solid State Interlocking (RETB)'. The above said practices are of the highest order of all the available control systems today. The contrasting demerits of the existing can be listed as below.
1. The striking disadvantage of the existing system is that only one train can be sent in a said direction, in a block ( Absolute Block System), thus bringing down the maximum track utilization, and requiring efficient designing and following of the Running time-tables.
2. The system governs and ensures safety for movement of the trains in the Blocks. The movement of trains in the Block stations falls in the hands of the

crew, who controls the traffic either by direct Point operations or by Route Relay Interlocking (RRI). The latter is a fail-proof way of controlling but the cost of implementing the system is huge when compared to the need, and hence most of the stations have direct Point operation control, where thousands of lives of passengers are under the hands of the Railway Station Crew. This has led to many disasters in the history of Indian Railways.
3. The system essentially requires a Railway Station Crew for its operation. Due to fatigue or due to some unwarranted behavior of some Railway Station Crews the system has become inefficient.
Complete Description:
The main objectives / features of the project can be briefed up into as follows
1. Train control automation in single line (Bidirectional) section as a replacement ofRETB.
2. Also to provide a manual control panel to the above system, pertaining to the principles of a Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) system, with a computer interface so that the panel can be called from anywhere (provided the computer/ processor has access to the network).
3. To redefine the principles of Absolute Block System (ABS), the one that is commonly employed for the traffic control in single line sections.
Description of the Diagram:
Sheet 1: The diagram in the sheet 1 explains the basic setup of the Block and the Block station. It also explains the jurisdictions of the control units proposed in the claimed system. It explains the way in which adjacent units are linked.
Sheet 2: The diagram explains the setup of the control system, the various control blocks that are involved in the system. It explains the step by step problem solving technique adopted in the control system in a pictorial manner.
Detailed Description
Way side station automation in single line (Bidirectional) sections
The Block station is completely automated for all sorts of wayside operations. This demands the linking of both the Block and block station. This feature also includes the setting and resetting of blocks under various operating conditions. This system is originally designed for sections employing track circuit type detectors. An additional circuit is incorporated in the track circuit detector's relay logic, which enables the detector to detect the direction.

The entire track section is divided into a finite number of units. Each unit comprises of a Block station and two Block sections on either side of the Block station. Adjacent units share a same block. This enables the continuity of operation and communication between the adjacent units.
Internally, each Block is checked at five points for the movement of the trains along with the direction. Leads are taken from adjacent track circuits and given to a logic circuit, which resolves the direction. Each detector has specific task(s) to perform and is not very simply tied up as in the case of unidirectional Automatic Block sections. The Block Station may have one or more loop roads along with a mainline. Each loop road and the mainline are detected at three points. These detectors aren't direction sensitive. Apart from these detectors there is a direction sensitive detectors placed at both the mouths of the Block station.
From operational view, a Block is set for a particular direction, before a train actually enters the Block. In other words, Blocks are set as a result of train movements in the adjacent blocks (non-halting pass through movements) or Block station in the case of halting and dispatching operation in the Block station. If an offensive movement is detected in adjacent blocks, that is, if the adjacent blocks are set for opposite directions with respect to each other, then one of the trains, to be more specific whichever train approaches the station first will be put up on one of the loop roads while the other train will be allowed to pass through the mainline. After that, the first train in the loop will be allowed to proceed in the original direction of its movement. In this way, the wayside stations along with the Blocks are automated.
In the above said algorithm every single possible movements are considered and the system is designed in such a way that the sequence of operations are followed with lots of interlocking, so as to make the system work in-par with the existing manual control system.
Manual Control Panel
The manual Control panel included here is of CTC type. This feature provides manual control of movement of the trains in the Block-station alone. Rather than diagram based control in today's system, this system provides controls as options. A single click / movement of the switch, will take care of all the corresponding operations (point movements, signal settings, loop freeness check, etc.). Also, this panel can be given a Computer interface, so that this panel can be called and accessed from anywhere. This panel finds use only in those sections, which are controlled by traffic controllers. Rather than the traffic controller passing on the control information to the corresponding Station Master(SM) and directing him to

do the job, he himself can call the panel and perform the required operations. The panel is also fail-proof, that is it has indicators, which indicates whether the corresponding operations can be performed or not. A green aspect on the indicator indicates that the operation can be performed; this shows that all the conditions are satisfied. A red aspect on the indicator indicates that operation can't be performed, and the control signal will not reach the system when the indicator shows red. A yellow aspect on the indicator indicates that the operation is being performed and not yet complete. Hence the traffic controller can get a clear picture of the happenings in the station situated far away from him. If the concept of European Rail Traffic Management System is incorporated in the system, then the manual panel will not be required.
Redefining Absolute Block System
Although Block partitioning and Automatic control are available in Automatic Block sections (confined to unidirectional sections), partitioning of Absolute block system is not possible. This may sound illogical, but the bare truth is that Absolute block system is the only possible methodology for controlling rail traffic in bidirectional sections. But this system effective uses the Block partitioning technique to send more than one train at a time into a Block in bidirectional sections. But this job requires much more complicated control algorithm as compared to a unidirectional Automatic Block system.
This can be effectively explained with real time examples. The general control technique is that a second train is allowed to enter into a Block in the same direction of the first train, after the first has crossed more than half the distance of the Block, provided there is no offensive movement in the next block (with respect to the direction of movement of the first and second trains). If there is any offensive movement or when the second train nears the first Block station before ever the first train crosses the said detector (placed at more than half the distance of the Block in the corresponding direction), the second train will be put up in one of the loop roads of the Block station-1. If after the first train crosses the said detector, there is no offensive movement detected in the next block, the second train is allowed to depart into the occupied Block, or if any offensive movement is detected, the second train is made to wait in the loop road itself, till the opposite direction train (after the first train crossing the second Block station, and the opposite direction train travels the full length of the Block) crosses the Block station. Then the second train, which is made to wait in the loop road, will be given authority to proceed into the Block section.
In all the above said features, controlling includes the setting of corresponding points, signals, route indicators, and check for all corresponding track sections to achieve the concept of interlocking.

Methodology of performing the Invention:
The best method of performing the invention would be with the use of microcontrollers with other auxiliary devices. The patent is also requested for the performance of the invention with the above said method.
Operation of the Invention:
With reference to the attached Block diagram, the claims are drafted. Each discrete unit consists of a Block Station and two adjacent Block Sections. Patent is requested for one such unit. Each of the blocks is detected at five points. Each detection point consists of two adjacent track circuits. The boundary of the Invention begins from the leads (wires) taken out of the track circuits and ends at the leads (wires) connecting the corresponding points and the signals. The Track Circuits, Signals (bulbs etc.), Point machines doesn't get included in the Invention, which is requested for Patent. However the Detector circuit is included in the Invention.
The detectors in a unit are given below.
• 1 Km Detector Previous Station L&R Block-1
• Preference Detector • Preference Detector -> L&R Block-1
• 1 Km Detector L&R Block-1
• Immediate Detector L&R Block-1 These detectors are direction sensitive.
Block Station
In the Block Station each one of the loop roads and mainline are checked at three points. These detectors aren't direction sensitive.
• Block Station
• Immediate Detector L&R Block-2
• 1 Km Detector L&R Block-2
• Preference Detector • Preference Detector -> L&R Block-2

• 1 Km Detector Next Station L&R Block-2
These detectors are direction sensitive.
Train Movement (Direction and Occupation) Register:
The various signals from the detectors are collected here. This block contains circuits, which resolves the presence of trains; along with the direction of its movement in the part of the said Block section.
Automatic Section
The Automatic section consists of the following blocks. They are explained as follows.
Normal Single Train Movement in Adjacent Blocks Resolver:
This is a plain simple control structure. In this block, signals are sent to the Point machine and Signal Bulb interfaces, based on the train movement in the case of 'Automatic Block Sections' in the double line sections.
Offensive Train Movement in Adjacent Blocks Resolver:
This block gets in the signal from the Train movement register and determines if there is any offensive movement in the adjacent Block sections. If any such movement is detected it sends a signal to the next successive block 'Cross-Over Movement Realization circuit'.
Cross-Over Movement Realization circuit:
This works based on the signal from the block 'Offensive Train Movement in Adjacent Blocks Resolver'. If a positive signal is received by it, then the following sequence of operations follows.
1. The loop roads are checked for its freeness
2. The train coming first to the Block station is berthed in one of the free loop roads, and till that time the second train is made to wait outside the Block-station.
3. After the first train completely enters into the loop road, which the train movements register, the second train that may be waiting outside the Block Station, is allowed to negotiate the Block Station through the mainline.
4. After the second train crosses the Block Station completely, the first train, which is now waiting in one of the loop roads, is given authority to proceed in its original direction.

This circuit sends signals to the Point machine and Signal Interfaces of the Block Station.
Back to Back Train Movement in Adjacent Blocks Resolver:
This block also gets its input feed from the Train movements register. This particular looks for more than one train movement in the adjacent blocks in the same direction. If it detects any, it sends a signal to the next successive block 'Second Train Movement Control circuit'.
Second Train Movement Control circuit:
This circuit works on the signals received from its preceding block. The features of this circuit are as follows.
o It sends a second train into a Block only when the previous train moving in
the block, in the same direction, has crossed more than two-third of the
Block section, o Even if the previous train crosses the two-third distance, if there is any
other train waiting in the next station in the direction of the first and second
trains, the second train is not allowed into the block, o The second train is berthed in one of the loop roads, when it has not
obtained the authority to proceed in its direction. In such cases the control
is given to the 'Cross-Over Movement Realization circuit'.
This circuit sends signals to the Point machine and Signal Interfaces of the Block Station.
The Automatic section generates the following signals, which takes care of the controlling the rail traffic, with interlocking. It is these signals, which make the system more durable and versatile, that enable the traffic controller to control the movement from anywhere.
• AAB-1
• AAB-2
• ABA-1
• ABA-2
Manual Section:
The manual controlling comes as an optional control feature, which can be used if manual controlling is desired. This panel is of Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) type. This panel can be interfaced to the CTC Bus, which connects globally to all the stations and control centers, and even to the World Wide Web. This enables

remote control of Rail traffic in far off sections. This is again provided with enough interlocking so as to prevent any mishaps. The Manual Controls, which are responsible for the manual operations, are given below. These are similar to that of the Automatic controls.

The Manual Control also includes a 'Manual Buffer5, which prevents, the Automatic Controls, flowing into the circuit, when Manual Panel is activated. Note: The system when in automatic mode, doesn't require any human intervention. However when manual panel is desired, the Manual Master switch is turned ON and the various controlling options are chosen from the Manual panel
Merits of the Invention:
1. More than one train can be sent into a Block (in a bi-directional Section).
2. Both the Block and Block Stations are linked making their conrol
completely automatic.
3. No need of any crew for controlling the movement of trains so that the
railway organizations can use their human resources to concentrate on
reducing track sabotages.
4. A manual control panel is also designed and provided to control the
movement of trains in Block station manually (if required), which can be
accessed from a Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) cabin.



989-che-2003-claims original.pdf



989-che-2003-description(complete) duplicate.pdf

989-che-2003-description(complete) original.pdf


989-che-2003-form 1.pdf

989-che-2003-form 19.pdf


Patent Number 204278
Indian Patent Application Number 989/CHE/2003
PG Journal Number 40/2007
Publication Date 05-Oct-2007
Grant Date 13-Feb-2007
Date of Filing 04-Dec-2003
Name of Patentee R. T. VIKRAMAN
Applicant Address NEW NO. 3, OLD NO. 2, RAMASWAMY STREET, T.NAGAR CHENNAI-600 017
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
PCT International Classification Number B61L 3/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA