Title of Invention


Abstract An insulation material (3) for use in, or when used in, building and/or construction, including a moisture vapour permeable, liquid water and air impermeable, monolithic, dimensionally stable, substrate layer (1 ) bearing an overlying moisture vapour permeable, liquid water impermeable, low emissivity layer (2) applied as a thin organic coating containing infrared reflective matter. The substrate layer (1 ) may be laminated to a support layer (5) having a strength which is greater than that of the substrate layer by an intermittent adhesive 4. Figure 1 is the representative figure.
Full Text FORM 2
(39 of 1970)
The Patent Rules, 2003
Name: HUNT TECHNOLOGY LIMITED Nationality: United Kingdom.
Address : Batchworth Lock House, 99 Church Street, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire WD3 1JJ, United Kingdom.
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed:
This invention relates to the building and construction industries and more particularly, but not exclusively, to insulation materials, structures and products Incorporating low emissivity or infrared reflective insulation for insulating roofs, walls and floors of buildings.
The terms "building" and "construction", wherever used in this specification include, without imitation, domestic, dwellings and Industrial buildings, temporary dwellings or temporary industrial buildings, huts, agricultural constructions, such ns barns, textile fabric building structures, caravans and mobile homes, and building and construction components used in buildings, such as water tanks and piping.
"Emissivity is a known expression of the amount of energy radiated by a material, matter or surface. An ideal material or surface emitting the highest theoretical Ievel of radiant energy would have an emissivity, t, of 1 and an ideal material or surface emitting no radiant energy would have an emissivity of 0. In practice all objects have an emissivity between 0 and 1. All emissivity values {E) herein gre given at a temperature of 25 C,
The terms "reflective" and "infrared reflective", wherever used in this specification, indicate reflection of at least some electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength region 0,75 nm to 1000 urn. Furthermore, the terms 'reflective' and "infrared reflective"' are used herein to indicate emissivity (t} of less than 0.5.
Thane is much focus on the subject of energy efficient buildings, both industrial and domestic dwellings. A leading organisation in the design of energy efficient building is the Pasaivhaus Institute in Darmstadt, Germany which has links to the Building Research Establishment (BRE) in the U,K. amongst others. A Pasaivhaus takes into account energy efficiency from its early design phase and includes the following basic features:
Compact form and good insLiation All components of the exlerior shell of the house are insulated to achieve a U-factorthat does net exceed 0.15 W^rr^K}.
Building envelope air- tig htnes3 Air leakage through unsealed joints must be le$$ than 0,6 times the house volume per hour.

Such energy efficient buildings incorporate very high levels of insulation in air eternal-facing surfaces of the structure - roofs, walls and floors, Energy efficient buildings seek, by design, to use Insulation to limit heat loss by the three routes of heat transfer, namely convection, conduction and radiation and in addition to limit heat loss through the mass transfer of air by
Air leakage is seen as an increasingly important factor in energy efficiency and Is now included in U.K building regulations: The Building Regulations 2000; Conservation of fuel and power', Approved Documents Part L introduced in April 2006.
The combination of high levels of insulation and low levels of air leakage saves energy by limiting the toss of heat from the building in cold climates and by limiting the requirement for air conditioning in warm climates. However, It increases problems of excessive moisture build-up within the building. A typical family of tour people in a house can generate between 7 and 15 litres of waiter vapour on an a wage day, if the relative humidity of the air inside the house is allowed to increase uncontrollably, then problems due to excess moisture such as condensation, mould
To deal with excessive moisture a number of mechanical solutions are commonly used ranging from simple extract fans which pump warm, moist air from the bidding and hence lose valuable heal, to de-humidification systems fitted with heat exchangers to recover the heal from the warm, moist air being vented. Such systems themselves are not without problems, including noise and the requirement for maintenance in addition to using energy to function.
Insulation is commonly provided between and, or over or under rafters at roof level, or between and over joists at the floor level of the roof loft. Similarly, insulation may be provided between and over the studs of beams of walls and floors of timber or metal framed buildings,
Insulation may comprise glass or mineral wool batts or sheets These are open structures, meaning that they incorporate fibres which have air spaces between the fibres that provide pathways for air to flow through the insulation structure as a whole. These insulation materials therefore cannot in themselves contribute to the reduction of air leakage in a building.
Rigid foam boards in which still air or other gas is trapped in a polymer matrix, usually palyurethane (PUR), are commonly used as insulation products. However, although these products have low thermal conductivities, typically 0.023 W/m2.K, they arc difficult to fit neatly between rafters or joists due to inconsistencies in rafter spacing and the natural bonding and warping of the timbers. Air leakage will therefore occur through the gaps between the PUR rigid board and the timbers. Similarly air leakage can occur through gaps between adjacent PUR boards fitted over or under rafters, for example, especially if the roof is a complex shape requiring
lit is therefore advantageous for any thermal insulation install In a building to contribute significantly to a reduction in air leakage whilst also allowing the passage of moisture vapour through it and hence through the building envelope. Excessive moisture can then diffuse through the insulation structure, reducing or obviating the requirement for mechanical ventilation systems,
It is known that materials that have infrared reflective or low emissivity surfaces can contribute to the thermal insulation of a biding. Unverified air spaces or cavities are good barriers to thermal conduction, whilst providing low emissivity surfaces adjacent to those air spaces improves the thermal barrier properties by reducing heat transfer across the air space by radiation. The properties Of non-ventilated air spa MS are well known and are described for example in BS EN ISO 6946:1936 which gives the relevant equations for the thermal resistance of air spaces depending on their thickness and angle, and the emissivity of the adjacent surfaces.
Patent Applica:ion WO 2003/024013 A1, assigned to E,l. du Pont de Nemours (Du Pont), describes how a moisture vapour permeable, low emissivity composite can be made by depositing a reflective metal layer onto a moisture vapour permeable sheet, especially a flash- spun, high density polyethylene sheet manufactured and marketed under the trade-name Tyvek® by E.I du Pont d» Nemours and Company. Inc, (Wilmington, DE). Such a reflective layer, If left exposed on the surface of the base layer is prone to degradation by oxidation far example, with a consequent loss of reflectivity or increase in emissivity WO 200GW24&13 A1 therefore discloses a method of providing a protective coaling to the reflective layer without blocking the majority of the micropores of the base sheet which would otherwise result in a loss of moisture vapour permeabilily. However, the process of providing the protective layer over the reflective metal layer without blocking the micropores of the underlying sheet is complex and difficult to achieve, requiring the use of monomers and I or oligometic or other low molecular weight precursors, preferably radiation polymerisable and capable of rapid evaporation in a vacuum vapour deposition process to form the coating. The coating is then polymerised or cross linked by exposure to a radiation source, such as electron beam or ultraviolet for example. Furthermore,
whilst it provides sufficient protection to the reflective aluminium layer for the intended application as a reflective wall breather membrane or reflective house wrap, it does also reduce the moisture
European patent specification EP 1 331 S16 A1 assigned to Thermal Economics limited, describes how a breathable reflective material comprising aluminium in the form of a foil, laminate, veneer or vapour deposited coating on a textile substrate may be used as a reflective breather membrane in a wall cavity of a frame construction of a building. The aluminium layer optionally may be coated with a protective layer to protect the metal surface In EP 1 331 31G A1, moisture vapour permeability, also referred to as "breathabil.ty\ is provided In two ways, by micro perforation of an aluminium layer attached to a mnhlnra vapour permeate support laynr such as a textile layer or by vapour deposition of an aluminium layer directly onto the textile layer. Although, the mo sture vapour permeable layer provides a low emissivity surface next to an air cavity in the building, the coated textile structure is not resistant to the passage of liquid water or air and so cannot contribute significantly to a reduction in heat loss by a r leakage for example.
UK Patent GB 2 306 315 B, ascribed to Don S Low Ltd,, discloses moi&tune vapour permeable 07 moisture vapour irr.pennieable, reflective film laminates for LSS in the construction industry. The moisture vapour permeability may be provided by a microporous film or, preferably, by mlcroperforatlon of the reflective film layer The reflective layer Is formed by deposition of a metal layer on the base film, lor exampls by plasma deposition uf aluminium, or by a metal or metallic material provided as an additive to a polymer melt. The reflective layer may be protected by bonding a second film layer over the reflective layer to form an ABA type structure where B is the reflective layer or material. However, only film layers comprising thermoplastic synthetic polymer materials are described and, where moisture vapour permeability is required, refererence is made only to microponous or microperforaled versions of those film layers. Reflective layers added to microporous films are prone to mechanical and oxidative degradation and protection is difficult without blacking the micropores of the film, as referred to already in the Du Pont patent application WO 2008/024013 A1. The Don & Low Patent does not address this issue but states a preference for microperforated film based structures. The advantage of microperforated film based structures is that the reflective metal layer can be well protected by providing an overlying film layer sandwiching the reflective material and thereby enabling it to withstand long periods of exposure even En aggressive environ mental conditions However, the microperforation of the film components means that the resistance to the passage of liquid water of products incorporating such film components is poor. The preferred structure disclosed in the Don S Low Patent, a reflective miens perforated film thermally intermiliently laminated to a polypropylene spunbond is manufactured commercially in the U.K. under the trade marit "Reflectashield"® by Don & Low Lid and has demonstrably poor liquid water resistance due to the presence of the rnicroperfcratrcns in the reflective film components, Micro perforation of insulation products or components also limits their usefulness in obviating or significantly reducing heat loss by air leakage. Although micro perforated products have found use as roofing underlays, due to (heir poor performance their use In this application within Europe is now negligible. The use of Don & Lows Reflectashield® product Is therefore confined to wall breather membranes where the requirements for air and liquid wafer resistance are modest,
WO 2004/054799 ascribed to Building Product Design Ltd, and Spunchem Africa Fty Ltd describes how a heat reflective aluminium toil, applied to a surface of a moisture vapour permeable substrate such as a nor woven fabric, may be made porous by stretching the composite between rollers producing multiple discrete cracks in the fait surface. The properties of the finished product arc not disclosed quantitatively nor is the issue of protection of the reflective surface addressed. Nevertheless it is dear that moisture vapour permeability is created In an otherwise moisture impermeable material by the Croat ion of apertures in the form of "cracks' in the foil surface. Thus the resultant laminate is functionally equivalent to the microperforated reflective laminate described in Don & Low Patient GB 2 38B BIS B and equally would find limited application due to relatively low sir and liquid water resistances.
The invention has been conceived with a view to overcoming or mitigating at least one problem of
According to a first aspect, the invention resides in an insulation material for use in, or when used in, building and/or construction, the material including a moisture vapour permeable, liquid water and air impermeable, monolithic, dimensionaliy stable, substrate layer bearing an overlying moisture vapour permeable, liquid water impermeable, reflective or tow emissivity layer applied as a thin, preferably adherent, organic coating containing infrared reflective matter, preferably in the form of a dispersion, for example of reflective particles or pigment and/or platelets and/or flakes.
The advantages of applying the coating onto the substrate layer, as opposed to using a reflective film consisting of the coaling only, are those of cost, strength and dimensional stability. The preferred materials forming the coating, though advantageous in other ways, may be expensive, soft and highly elastic. In accordance with the invention therefore, it is advantageous to provide
such materials in the form of a thin coating on the surface of a substrate layer, which is typically of a lower cost, stronger and more dimensionally stable.
The infrared reflective matter could also be incorporated directly into the substrate layer, rather than being added as a coating, However, since the substrate layer is typically of a heavier weight or thicker gauge than is obtainable in a thin coaling, and indeed needs to be sufficiently thick to provide the strength to withstand subsequent handling and processing for its intended application, proportionally more of the expensive reflective matter would typically need to be used to attain the same emissivity performance. It follows that it is advantageous to provide the required low emissivity through the economic use of smaller quantities of reflective matter in a thin coaling layer.
Relevant reflective, liquid water impermeable, moisture vapour permeable films useful in the context of the invention are the subject of UK patent application number GB 0709 The substrate layer and the coating are "moisture vapour permeable", (i.e. breathable) in the sense that they permit the passage of moisture vapour an extent consistent with a desired moisture vapour transmission rate in the insulation material.
Moisture vapour permeability or moisture vapour transmission rate {MVTR) are provided throughout this specification based or testing with a Lyssy Model L80-5000 Water Vapor Permeability Teste-at 100%f15% RH, i.e. 85% RH difference and 23 C,
As aforesaid, it is desirable for insulation materials to be as moisture vapour permeable as possible without sacrificing other desired standards of insulation properties. The substrate layer and the coaling (I.e. the reflective coated substrate layer) may preferably have a moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR) of at least 360 gm2/day, more preferably at least 620 g/m2/day.
Advantageously, the substrate layer and low emissivity layer (coating) may be selected such that 'the reflective coated substrate layer has a moisture vapour permeability greater than 1000 g/m2/day. Additionally or alternatively, the low emissivity layer may advantageously provide an emissivity on the coated surface of the substrate layer of less than 0.5, preferably less than 0.3. more preferably less than 0.25 and most preferably less than 0.20.
The term "substrate film layer" will hereinafter be used to refer to the moisture vapour permeable, liquid water and air impermeable, monolithic, dimensionally stable, substrate layer. Further, in this specification, the terms sheet, film and membrane are regarded as equivalent terms unless
The substrate film layer of the insulation material is "liquid water and air impermeable" in Hie sense that it helps to prevent or reduce both heat-transfer resulting from convection, and the ingress of liquid in the insulation material. Particularly due to its monolithic nature. the substrate film layer advantageously permits the passage of only insignificant amounts of air and liquid, if any. Further, the substrate layer is advantageously 'dimensionally stable", in the sense that its dimensions do not charge significantly (in the context of the invention) with changes in ambient temperature and, preferably, humidity. This ensures that the substrate provides effective support tor the coaling in use. Additionally, the substrate layer may advantageously be inelastic to prevent
The substrate film layer of the invention may advantageously comprise films made from organic biopolymers such as suitable carbohydrates [starch, cellulose, glycogen, hemi-cellulose. chitin, fmetana, Inulin, lignJn and/or pectin based materials), gums, proteins (animal or vegetable), colloids and hydnocollcids, poiylactio, polygalactia end/or cellulose films in single sheet or multilayer or composite sheet terms, including sheets, based on paper technology. Multi-layer monolithic sJbstrate films of the invention may be formed by coextrusion and/or by laminating. Particularly preferred materials for forming the substrate layer are cellulose and rts derivatives and regenerated cellulose, for example that marketed by Innovia Films Limited under the trade mark
Using a cellulose based substrate layer significantly increases resistance to IIV light exposure as compared to those currently available products based on UV-stabillsed polypropylene or
The thickness of the substrate film layer may vary depending on the anticipated application, with any values in the range from 15 pm to 390 pm being appropriate as the application may be. Layers at the thinner end of the thickness range have the advantage of lower cost per unit area as well as higher moisture vapour permeability for a giver composition. The invention is not limited to any range of thickness of the substrate film layer, although the above range is preferred.
The thin adherent mating layer may he of any suitable thickness cons stent with achieving a desired level of emissivity and/or moisture vapour permeability in the insulation material. For optima! balance between low emissivity and moisture vapour permeability, the coating weight may
The coating layer may be formed from solvent or water based dispersions or solutions or from 100% active systems requiring no solvent, by any of the known coaling techniques without limit such as wine-rod coating, kntfe-over-roll, reverse-roll, gravure or other appropriate printing application techniques, eidrusion, foam or spray coating.
The term "organic", ia used herein to denote that the coating layer of the insulating material according to the first aspect of Die invention comprises compounds having a carbon basis. The coaling layer may advantageously comprise cellulose derivatives, synthetic organic polymers, naturally occurring polymers and their derivatives. Cellulose derivatives includes cellulose ethers, esters and nftnocellulose for example. Suitable synthetic organic polymer? include pdyacrylic esters, polyvinyl acetate copolymers, polyurethanes, polyarmdes such as nylon 6, nylon 6,0 and nyEwi 4,6, polysulfones and polyvinyl alcohol copolymers. Naturally occurring polymers Includes, without limitation, stanches, chitin, fructan, lignitn, gums and proteins and their derivatives. Mixtures of the above materials, with or without the addition of inorganic additives (e.g. fumed silica), can also be used, however, it is gone rally preferred that such inorganic additives be substantially absent from the coating layer since such additives tend to increase the emissivity of
The coating layer may advantageously comprise a block copolymer (or block copolymeric binder) preferably selected from materials which allow high transfer of moisture vapour by molecular diffusion. Suitable block copolymers will typically have polymer chains comprising high and low crystallinily sections. Examples of particularly suitable block copolymers are styrene butadiene resins and hydrophlllc polyurethanes such as polyester urethanes, polyelher unethanes, polycarbonate urethenes artd polyurethane urea polymers or combinations of these.
The block copolymer (binder) is preferably selected from materials comprising a hard and soft segment po'ymer of the type designated for fabrics allowing breathability- Hydrophilic polyurethanes which mgiy be used according to the invention as prefered material for the block copolymer binder are the reaction product of (a) polyiuacyanates; and ib) palyols containing at
least two isocyanate reactive groups; and (c) optionally an active hydrogen-containing chain
Suitable polyisocyanates comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, or aromatic polyisocyanates. As examples of suitable aliphatic diisocyanates, Lhere may be mentioned * ,4-diisQcyana:obutane, 1,6-diisocyanatohexane, 1 ,&4Jiisocyanato-2, 2 ,4-lrimethylheKEire and 1,1.2- daisocyanatododgcane, either alone or in admixture. Particularly suitable cyclosllphallc cBlsocyanates Include 1.3- and 1,4-diisocyartatocyclohexane, 2.4-d5socyanato-l- mslhyleydoheyane, 1,3-diisocyanatQ-2-methylcyd£)hexane, 1-isocyanalo-2- (isocyanatomethyt)cyclopentane, 1,1-methylenebis (4-isocyanalo-cydohexane, 1,1-{1- methylethylidene) bis {4-isocyanaitocydohexanej, isocyenato- 1-isocyanatomethyl-1,3,3- Irimethylcydohexane (isophorone diisocyanate), 1n3- and
1,4bis(isocyanatamslhyl)cyclohejhexane, either alone or in admixture.
Particularly suitable aromatic diisocyanates include 1,4-diisocyaratobenzene, 1,T- methylenebisfJ-isacyanatnbenzBne], 2,4-dii5CCyanat{>-1-methylb9rEene, 1,3-d iiSOCyanatO-Z- methylbsnzene. 1,5-diisocyanatonaphthalene, 1,1 -[1 -methy1e1hylidene)bis[4- isocyanatDbenzsne, 1,3-and 1,4-bis{1-isocyanato-1 -methylethyijbenzene, either alone or in admixture. Aromatic polyisocyanates containing 3 ur mure isouyanate groups may also be used such as 1"-methylidyretris[4-isogya"iat(fbenzene] and polypheny! polymethylene polyisocyanates obtained by phosqenatlon of aniline/formaldehyde condensates.
The polyols containing at least two isocyanate reactive groups may be polyester polyols, polyether polyols, polycarbonate polyols, polyaoetal polyols, pdyesteramide patyals or polythioefher polyols. The polyester polyols, polyether polyols and polycarbonate polyols are
Suitable polyester polyols which may be used include the hydroxyl-terminated reaction products of polyhydric, preferably dlhydric alcohols [to which Irlhydrlc alcohols may be added) with polycarboxylic, preferably dicarboxylic acids or their corresponding carboxylic acid anhydrides. Polyesler polyols obtained by the ring opening polymerization ot lactones such as e-caprolactone
The poiyearboxylic acids which may be used for the formatian of these polyester polyols may be aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic and/or heterocyclic and they may be substituted (e.g by halogen atoms) and saturated or unsaturated. As examples of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, there may be mentioned, succinic add, glutaric add, adrpic acid, suberic acid, azelafe: acid, sebadc add and dodecanedlcartooxylta add. As an example of a cyctoaliphafic dlcarboxylc acid, there may be mentioned hexahydrophthalic acid. Examples of aromatic dicarsoxyfic adds includc isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, Diiho-phthalic acid, telranhlorophthalic adds and 1,5- naphthaleredicarbox^lc acid. Among the unsaturated aliphatic dicarboxylic acids which may be used, there may be mentioned fumaricadd, maleic add, itaconic add, dlraconic add, mesaconic acid and tetrahydrophthallc acid. Examples of tri- and tet-acarboxylic adds include trimaliitic acid, trimesic acid anc pyromdlitfc add-
The polyhydrc alcohols which may be used "far the preparation of the polyester pnlyols include ethylene giycol, propylene glycol, 1,3-propanedid, 1,3-butanediol. 1,4-butariediol, 1.5pentanediol, 1,6-hexanedol, neopenSyl glycol, diethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, triethylene glycol, t alia ethylene glycol, dlbutylene glycol, 2-methyl-1,3-pentanedtol, 2l2I4-tritinethyl-,l,3-pentanediol, 1,4-cyctohaxanedimethanol, ethylene ox de adducts or propylene oxide adducts of blsphenol A or hydfogeneted bisphenol A. Triols or tetraols such as trimathylolethane, trimcthylolpropanc, glycerine and p&ntaerythntol may also be used, The9e polyhydric alcohols are generally used to prepare the polyester polyols by polycoridensation with fre above mentioned polycarbnuylic adds, but accwding to a particular embodiment they can also be added as such to the reaction mixture.
Suitable polyether polyols indude polyethylene glycoEs, polypropylene CjlyCOlS and polytetraethylene glycols.
Suitable polycarbonate polyols which may be used include the reaction products of diols such as 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-hexansdiol, diethylene glycol, triefhylene glycol or t el ra ethylene glycol with phosgene, with dlarylearbonates such as d phenylcarbonale or with cyclic carbonates such as ethylene and/or propylene carbonate-
Suitable polyacetal polyols which may be used include those prepared by reacting glycols such as diethyleneglycol with formaldehyde, Suitable potyaceials may also he prepared by polymeryng cyclic actuals.
The active hydrogen-conflnining chain extender which may optionally be used is suitably an aliphatic, ali cyclic, aromatic or heterocyclic primary or secondary polyamine having up to BO, preferably up to 12 tarbon atoms, or water. In the lalter caEe, a futly reacted polyurethano polymer is obtained with no residual free Isocyanate groups.
Where the chain extension of the polyurethane pnepotyrner is effected with a polyanrinc, the total amount of polyamine should be calculated according to the amount of isocyanate groups present in the polyurethane prepolymer in order te obtain a fully reacted potyirethane urea polymer with no residual free isocyanate groups; the polyamlne used In this case has an average functionality of 2 to 4, preferably 2 to 3,
The degree of non-linearity of potyunethane urea polymers controlled by the functionality of the poly amine used for the chain extension. The desired functionality can be achieved by mixing poly amines with different amne functionalities. For example, a functionality of 2,5 may be achieved by using equimolar mixtu-es of diamines and tria mines.
Examples of such chain extenders useful herein include hydnazino, ethylene diaminat piperazine, dielhylene triaimine, tnethylene tetramine, tstraethylene pentamine, pentaethylene hexamine, N, N, N-ths|2-aminoethyl]amine, N^-piserazinoethylJathylenediamine, H1N'-bis(2-aminoethy1) piperazine, N.N.N-tris^-aminoslhyl^ylenediamme, N-[M-{2-am noethylJ-S-aininaettiyl-N'^S- aminoethyljpiperaz ne, N-(2-aminoethy1}-N'-{2piperazinoelliyl)Blhylerie diamine, N,N-bis(2- arninoelhyl)-N-(2-pperazinoethyl)amine, N,N-biE(2piperazinoethyJ)amLie, guanldirre, melamine.K- (2-aminoethyl) -1, 3-pnopanedlamlne, 3,3"- eilamlnoberttldine, 2,4,6-triaminopyrinmdine, dipropylenetriamine, tctra propylene Dentamine, tripnopytenatetram ne, N,N-b!S(6- aminohexyl)amine, N,N'-bis[3-aminopropyl)ethyienetiiamine, 2 ,-W3is(4'-amtnoben;yl)aniline1 1,4- biilanediamine,1, 6-hexanediamine. 1rS-oclaned arrtine.1,1 Odecanediamine, 2- methylp&nlarnetbylenediamine,1,1£ -dodecanediamine, sophorone diamine (oM -ami~o-3- aminomethyl-3 '5 ,5-tfimethyl-cyi;lclie;canej bis(4amint>cyclcthexyl)methanB(or bis(aminocycloh exa ne-1-yl j, methane{ and bls(4-a m I no-Smethylcyclohexyl Jmelha ne(or bis(ajni ne- 2-melhylcydofiexane-4-yl)methane, polyethylene imines, polyoxyethylene amines anf/orpclyoxyprc-pyler.e amines (e.g. Jeffamines from TEXACO;.
The total amount of polyamines shuuld be calculated according to the amount of isocyanate groups present in the polyunetharie prepolymer. The ratio of isocyanate groups In the prepolymer
Lu active liyciuLer: in the chain extender during the chain extension is in the range of from about 1.0:0.7 to a bout 1 .Q: 1.1, pre lerably from about 1.0:0,9 to a bout 1,0:1.02 on an equivalent basis.
Preferably, the polyisocyanate Is a dllsocyanate and more preferably it Is selected from 1.1'methylenebis-[4-i5jocyariaLubanz«rif}] and 1.1'-methylerobis [4-isocyanatocydoheKane].
Preferably the polyol ie a polyethylene glycol selected from ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, pcJytetram ethylene glycol and the like, eventually in admixture with other polyether polyols.
Even more preferably, the polyethylene glycol has a very low molecular weight (from 300 to 900). This is rather unconventional as usually tho polyurethanas incorporate polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight above 2000 in order to achieve the well known properties of the polyunethanes (long soft and hard segments, melting point, slreng'J-i). Bieathability is also known to decrease with the molecular weight of the polyethylene glyool. However, in this embodiment, the low molecular weight of tha polyethylene glycol is supposed to be responsible for the amelioration of the flux
Preferably the chain extender is isophorone diamine (orl-amino-3-aminomethyl- 3,5,5,trimethylcydohexane) alone or in admixture with hydrazine.
The reflective matter in the coating layer is preferably a dispersion of a pigment, such as a metal pigment or a pigment which includes a reflective metallic surface. A wide range of metals may be used including, but not confined to, aluminium, bronze, stainless steel, brass, gold, nickel, silver, tin, copper or mixtures thereof. Alternatively mineral pigments such as glass or mica coated with reflective metal surfaces may be used. The reflect ve matter is preferably in a flake or platelei form.
The emissivity of the low emissivity layer for any particular reflective matter and coating is primarily dependent upon two variables: the amount of reflective matter present in the coating; and the thickness of the coating. Higher levels of reflective matter will give lower emissivities but increased cost, and above critical adition levels the matter may be insufficiently bound within the coating matrix. Expressing the amount of reflective matter or pigment as a pigment to binder ratio, the pigment: binder ratio may be in the range from 3:1 to 1:10. The term 'binder' is used to mean the dry or solvent-leEs polymer matrix forming the coating within which the clgmem la dispersed Coalings having lower pigment ID binder ratios may alill provide suitable low emissivity surfaces by increasing the coating layer weight per unit area which may preferably range from 0.8 ghmJ 1o
From a second aspect, the invention resides In a laminated insulation material for use in, or when used in, h.jildir.g and,'or construction, and including a moisture vapour perm sable, liquid water impermeable substrate tayer bearing an overlying moisture vapour penmeable, liqu'd waler impermeable, reflective coating layer, the substrate layer being lam nated to a support layer and the product components being predominantly derived from sustainable or renewable materials,
Such sustainable or renewable materials are those derived predominantly from natural biological
By means of this aspect of the invention, the components of the reflective laminate which are derived from minerals, mineral oil or gas comprise a small minority of the laminated insulation material, Preferably, only lest; than 10,4% by weight of the insulation material may be material derived from minerals, mineral oil or gas, more preferably less than 1% by weight. The invention thus provides an in proved reflective, air and liquid water impermeable, moisture vapour permeable insulation material, in particular a laminated insulation material for use in the building or construction industries, in which the reliance on components derived from mineral oil or gas is
From a third aspect, the Invention resides in a substantially planar, self-supporting layer of a sheet or Tim for use as, or when used as, an Insulation material, including a subsiratc film layer bearing an overlying substantially continuous adherent thin coaling layer comprising a block copolymer encapsulating a particulate, preferably metal or metal-ooated, pigment or Infrared reflective matter providing an einiasivty un the coaled surface of the substrate film layer less than 0,5, the reflective coated substrate film layer having a moisture vapuur permeability greater than 100O g/rrftday, the substrate film layer being preferably laminated to a support layer.
Further, wherever appropriate, the advantages and preferred features of the first aspect of the invention apply mutatis mutandis to the third aspect of the invention. Thus, lor example, the same block copolymer, substrate and pigment materials maybe selected.
The invention comprehends use of any of the reflective coated substrate film layers defined herein in the building and construction industries in general and in a building in particular. However, the
reflective, air and liquid wa:er impermeable, moisture vapour permeable membrane formed by the reflective coated substrate film layer of the invention is not suitable for use in many building or construction industry applications as an unsupported layer. The membrane may have adequate tensile strength for use in construction industry applications but will typically have poor tear strength.
Single films, whether formed by melt processes such as blowing or casting or by extrusion and regeneration from solutions, exhibit directional orientation at the molecular level. This molecular orientation is the main factor contributing to directionality in the physical properties of the film so that when considering tensile strength, for example, machine direction values frequently exceed those measured in the crass direction of the material as formed. Conversely, tear strengths are frequently lower when measured m the machine direction than in the cross direction so that any tsar initiated in the film tends to orient itself along the weakesl orientation and requires only low forces to propagate- Tear strength s important in building construction since such sheet materials are frequently fixed n position for use by nails or staples so that the puncture holes act as initiation points for tearing.
In order more readily to meet the strength requirements of th» building and construction industries, the substrate film layers of the insulation materials described herein is ideally laminated to one or more a strong support layers, i a. a support layer having a strength which Is greater than that of the substrate layer.
In order to facilitate preservation of the moist lira vapour permeability of the substrate layer and not damage the coating layer, the support layer may advantageusly be laminated lo the substrate layer by intermittent adhesive bonding.
Resulting supported/laminated insulation material of the invention is, for example, particularly suitable for use in or as; roofing insulation or a roofing underlay in a building; wall insulaton in a building; and/or floor insulation in a building. Thus the invention also specifically extends to such uses of the isullation material and buildings Incorporating them.
The support layer may advantageously take the form of a non-woven fabric such as a polypropylene spunbond. Where sustainable materials are desired, the non-woven fabric may for example be needled wool non-woven or wool felt, such as a lightly needled wool fleece.
The insulation materials described herein may advantageously fbmvpart of a multi layer Insulation product Thus the Invention extends to a multi-layer msuJatla.1 product having oppositely facing side edges and including a plurality of inner air and water vapour permeable insulating wadding layers arid at least one inner reflective layer separating two said wadding layers. the inner layers being sandwiched between first and second cuter layers of supported insulating material as described herein.
The inner reflective layers) may preferably comprise any insulation material of the Invention described herein
Preferably, to avoid thermal bridging, the first and second outer layers may be held together along the oppositely facing side edges without there being any perforations or punctures between the oppositely facing side edges of the Insulation product,
The invention also extends to a multi-layer insulation product having outer layers of laminated insulation material as described herein laminated to a nonwoven fabric support layer by welding along long or machine direction edges, the welded outer layers enclosing an insulation core Including alternating layers of insulation materia' as described herein which includes respective wadding layers acting to maintain a space between the reflective substrate layers of the insulation materials.
To enhance Insulation properties, the space between the reflective substrate layers of the insulation materials in the mult -layer insulation products may be at least 5 mm.
The multi-layer insulation products formed with the insulation materials of the invention are, for example, particularly suitable for use in or as: roofing insulation or a roofitig underlay in a building wall insulation In a building, and/or floor insulation in a building. Thus the invention also specifically extends to such uses of the insulation products, and buildings incorporating them.
In order that the invention may be more readily understood, reference will now be made, by way of example, to the accompanying drawings, inwhich:-
Figure 1 is a cross-section of a laminated insulation material constructed in accordance vwth the invention-
Figure 2 is a cross-section of a test apparatus for measuring the thermal conductivity of multi-toil insulation without and including the laminated insulation material of Figure 1, together
Figure 3 Is a perspective view from the front of a cavity wall frame structure of a building and incorporating the lamhaftsd insulation material of Figure 1 in a wall membrane; and
Figure 4 is a diagrammatic side view of a multi-layer insulation product having outer tayuis formed by the larnfciaied insulation material of Figure 1.
Referring to Figure 1, there Is shown on air and liquid water impermeable, moisture vapour permeable monolithic, dimensionally stable membrane constituting a substrate film layer 1 which forms the substrate for, and bea^, an overlying adherent thin reflective or tow emissivity coating layer 2 containing a dispersion of an infrared reflective pigment (not visible) dispersed within the coating layer 2, The two comporent layers 1 and 2 combined form a moisture vapour permeable reflective coated substrate film byer 3. An intermittent adhesive 4 attaches the membrane constituting a moisture vapour permeable neflectfve coated film substrate layer 3 to a strong support layer 5 to form a laminated insulation material 6.
The invention will now be further explained by reference to the following Examples 1 to 4
In these examples, emissivity has been measured to ASTM C1371-98 using a model AE Emissometer manufactured and supplied by Devices and Services Company, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A., calibrated usng the low and high emissivity standards provided by the test equipment supplier and measured w th the reflective coated side cf the test sample facing the radiation source. All emissivity values [E} herein are given at a temperatire of 25 C.
Moisture vapour permeability or moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR) was measured using a Lyasy Model LSQ-SDCm Water Vapor Permeability Tester at 10OT4/15% RH, i.e. 65% RH
EXAMPLE 1 - Membrane component (reflective coated substrate film layer) only
A membrane component was prepared using a 35 pm thick regenerated cellulose film (Cellophane7™ film by Innovia Films Limited!. gravure coated with a 0.9g/h2 polyurethane block copolymer coating comprising hand and soft segm&ilts (in this Case the reaction product of (a} a polyisocyanate; and (b) polyols containing at least two socyanate reactive groups) containing a reflective aluminium pigment, Mirato TF4679, at a pigment to binder ratio of 1:1, The emissivity, e, of the reflective coated surface of the reflective membrane was 0.42 and the MVTR was 1444 g/m2/24 hours.
EXAMPLE 2 - Membrane component + support layer component
The same gauge of regenerated cellulose film was coated using the same materials and the same pigment to binder ratio of 1:1 but with the coating layer weight increased to 2.2 g/m*. The reflective film was then laminated using rotary gravune hot melt adhesive technology to a 50 g/m* basis we ght polypropylene spun bonded nonwoven fabric as the support layer wlh the non- coated side of the membrane contacting the support layer. The adhesive coat weight was approximately 10 g/m2 using an intermittent dot pattern to maintain the mo sture vapour penmeabifity of the laminate. The finished laminated Insulation material therefore presenter! two opposing surfaces, one comprising the 50 g/m2 polypropylene spunbondod fabric, tho other comprising the reflective coating layer. The finished laminated insulation material (laminate) showed a reduced & of U.25 and the MVl K was 1198 hr, \ hus the increase in coaling
weight, keeping other coating factors constant, gave a beneficial decease n eml&sivity. Adhesive lamination of the coated film to the support layer produced on y a mod&sl apparent decrease in moisture vapour permeabiSty.
EXAMPLE 3 - Membrane component + support layer component
Using the same materials, the pigmeni binder ratio was changed to 1.6:1 using the same coating ayer weight as in Example 2. In other words the content of reflective pigment in the coating was ncreased compared to Example 2 keeping other materials and conditions the same. The -effective membrane was lam nated as before to a SOgfrn2 basis weight polypropylene spunbonded fabric. The laminated insulation material (laminate) had an emissivity of 0.20 and an MVTR of 1037 g/ms/£4 hr. Thus, increasing the reflective pigment content had a significant beneficial effect on the em ssivity.
It will be understood lhal the differences in observed MVTR values will be a function no! only of the weight of the reflective coating layer but also of normal process variations in the weight or disposition of the adhesive used to laminate the component layers.
The tensile strength, elongation and tear values of the Examples 2 and 3 were determined primarily by the polypropylene spunbonded fabric support layer and worn vary similar irrespective of the nature of the reflective coating layer. Typical values for the samples are given in Table 1:
Table 1: Typical physical values for laminates of Examples 2 & 3
Basis Weight Ten Stre
"MD~ site
ngth CD Ekmg P
MP ation at eak
CD Trap; tear st MD 22Qld
rength CD " MVTR
TypiCaJ values 33 1S2 104 IS 34 53
1 55 1113
Test information
Bas s weight B$ EN 1549-2:3001.
Tensile strength and elongation values: ISO 9073-3:09,
Trapezoid tear strengths: ISO 0073-4:8D.
MVTR: 100%/15% RH. Lyssy Model La0-50M> Water Vapor Permeability Tester

EXAMPLE 4 - Membrane component + support layer component
In a fourth example a rellective film prepared as in Example 3 was laminated using rotary gravune hot meJt adhesive technology to a 100 g/m1 polypropylene spunbonded nonwoven fabric as the support layer with the non-coated side of the membrane contacting the support layer The adhes ve coat weight was approximately 18 g/mi using an intermittent dot pattern to maintain the moisture vapour permeability of the laminate The finished laminate therefore presented two opposing surfaces, one comprising the 100 g/m2 polypropylene spunbonded fabric, the other oo Tip rising the reflective coating.
A comparison of the properties of the unlamlnated reflective coated substrate film layer component and af the adhesively lamirated insulation material is given in Table 2.
Table 2: Comparison of reflective coated substrate film layer and laminate properties
Basis Weight Tensile Elongation at Trapezoid
Strength peak tear strength MVTR Emissivity
G N N N N M N gfm2fZ4hr E
Reflective film layer 34 100 57 6 17 0.4S 0.62 1752 u.ie
Reflective laminate 152 220 125 44 SO 94 se 1270 0.10
Test information
Basis weight BS EN 1049-2:2001.
Tensile strength and elongation values: 1SO 9073-3:89,
Trapezoid tear strengths ISO 9073-4:69.
MVTR: 23°t, 100%/15% RH, Lyssy Model 180-5000 Water Vapor Permeability Tester
Emissiv ty: ASTM C1371-9S using g model AE Emissometer

Thus 1 can be seen that although the refisntive coated substrate film layer component prior to lamination has a useable tensile strength, its tear strengths are very low indeed precluding its appl cation as a product by itself lor many purposes. The physical strengths of the laminata ana of course greally mproved especially in relation to tear strength whilst the moisture vapour permeability and emlssfvity are slilf excellent.
Examples of usee
Outer layers of multi-foil insulation
The laminated insulation materials of the invention described in E>amples 2 and 3 are particularly suitable for use as the outer layers of a multi-fbl reflective insulation material. Such multi-foil insulation materials are the subject of the applicant's patent application WO 20O6N143O&2 A1 which discloses a thermal insula-ton structure comprising a plurality of tnncr water vapour permeable, air impermeable, reflective film layers alternating with a plurality of inner air and water vapour permeable insulating spacer layers which entrap air and separate the reflective layers. The inner layers arc sandwiched between outer layers which are moisture vapour permeable, air impermeable layers having low emissivity outer surfaces. The whole muti-foil structure acts as z thermal insulation product limiting heat loss by obviating or minimising air leakage in add It on to reducing heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiaiiun, inducing the (hernial benefit or
the UnVGntilated Sir spaces adjacent to the cuter lew emissivity surfaces Whilst allowing excess moisture vapour to escape ihnough it
While tire laminates of Examples 2 and 3 could find use as the inner reflective layers of the mulli- foil insulation it woJd be economically advantageous for this particular application ff the reflective membrane ware laminated to a lower cost, lighter weight substrata. In the structure of a multi-foil insulation product, it is the outer layers which are required to have the strength to withstand being held in position by nails or staples. The inner refleclive layers contribute little or nothing to this and so the use of lighter weight laminates as inner layers is appropriate. A spunbonded nonwoven fabric with a basis weight less than 20 gfm2 would be an example of a suitable lightweight support layer altlrough a wide range of lightweight materials would be suitable including, without limit, carded nonwoven fabrics, woven or knitted fabrics, nets or scrims, apertured Tims and papers. An alternative approach would be to laminate the reflective membrane component of the Invention directly to the wadding, foam or other material used to form the a r permeable layers separating the reflective membrane layers in the .nsulation structure disclosed in W020Q6AJ43Q92A1. In this case the laminated insulation material {laminate) of this invention comprises the reflective membrane component plus the air permeable spacing or separating layer which then also acts as the support layer.
An example of a low emissivity, air and liquid water impermeable, moisture vapour permeable insulation product made using both inner and outer laya~3 of this invention is described in Table 3 below with a moisture impermeable multi-foil insulation according to the prior art. formerly sold under the trade mark Thlnsulox™ by Web Dynamics Limited, for comparison
Table 3: Physical data of muHMioil insulation products
Prior art impermeable multl-foti Insulation Multi-foil insulation product made using reflective layers of this invention
Emissivity of outer layers 0.4 0.22
Typical mgisture vapour perm ea b ilily of one inner laye.- g m 2/24hr Number of PET wadding layers 5 5
Number of inner reflective layers 4 4

Table 3: Physical data of multi-foil insulation products
Prior art impermeable multi-foil insulation Mu Id -foil insulation product made using rcflcctivc layers Of this invention
Emissivity of inner refl active layers Q.05 0 22
Total thickness of insutation, rnm 30 30
Basis weight of insulation, gm"a 69® 720
Thermal conductivity, W/mK (including £ x 25mm air cavities) 0.0545 0,0533

Laminated insulation materials (lam nates} of the invention may also be used as reflective or low emissivity, air and liquid water impermeable, moisture vapour permeable roofing underiays. In this application a strong support layer is required both to withstand the handling required during insla tation and the forces exerted upon it over-a tong period once installed. Roofing underiays may be subject to strong wind uplift forces, for example, where low elongation values under tensile stress are an advantage. Spunbonded polypropylene nonwoven fabrics are commonly used as the main components providing mechanical strength to commercially available synthetic reefing underlays. A polypropylene spunbonded fabric or spunbonded fabric layers giving a basis weight either singly or combined cl al least 8O g/msr preferably ^100 g/m?, would be particularly suitable for support layers of the invention for this application
Thus Example 4 is an example of structure which would be suitable for use as a low emissivity, air and liquid water impermeable, moisture vapour permeable roofing underlay. Such support substrates may advantageously contain additives such as pigments, extenders, flame netardants, heat and UV-stsbilisers. and surface modifiers such as hydrophiic or hydrophobic additives, used aHhar singly or in combination. Such a low emissivity roofing underlay is particularly advantageous when used in combination with a tow emissivity insulation product, examples of which include multi-foil insulation products or rigid foamed board insulation panels having low emissivity outer surfaces. The reflective reefing underiay is advantageously arranged so lhat an unventllatcd air cavity is formed bounded by two low emissEvlty surfaces, one the low emlsslviiy surface of the roofing underlay, the other of the insulation.
The advantage of a low emissivity roofing underlay in accordance with the invention has been demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductance of a the prior art multi-foil insulation product of Table 3 positioned between two expanded polystyrene spacing frames to provide two unventilated air cavities, one above and one below the multi-foil insulation. The themal conductance of the same rnulti-l insulation may then be re-measured but with a low emissivity mating underlay inserted above the upper air cavity
Referring to Figure 2, a test apparatus consists of a heated tower test plate, 7 and an upper test plate 8 which contains thermocouples so that the heat flux from th» surface of test plate 7 to the surface of the upper plate a can be measured. The test apparatus is normally used according to test method BS EN 12607:2001 with the two test plates, 7 and 8, in direct contact with the insulation sample under test. However, to lake into account the low emissivity surfaces of the insulation materials relevant here, including the low emissivity roof underlay constructed in accordance with this invention, the test method was adapted so that the prior art multi-foil insulation product 10 was positioned between two expanded polystyrene spacer rings 9a and 9b tc form unventilated cavities 11a end lib above and below the mulii-foil insulation. The spacer rings 9a and 9b were 25mm thick therefore forming 25mm thick unventilaited air cavities 11a and 11b. With this arrangement the thermal conductivity of the prior art multi-foil insulation 10 together with the unventilated air cavities 11a and 11b was measured. The experiment was then repeated but wilh a roofing underlay 12 of this invent on positioned between the upper spacer ring ^a and the upper test plats 8 so that ils low emissivity surface 13 faced Into the cavity 11a. The test results are given in Table 4.
Table 4: Effect of low emissivity roof underlay on thermal insulation properties
Test materials Thickness, mm
[inch cavities) Conductivity, A W/mK Thermal resistance, R m!K/W
Prior art mUtMbil insulation product 76 0.0545 1.43
Prior art multi-foil insulation product + Low emissivity roofing underlay 78 0.04447 1.75
Note 1: prior art multi-foil Insulation product = Impermeable multi-foil insulation, 30mn thick, c (outer surfaces) = 0.4

Note 2; Lew emissivity roofing underlay = moisture vapour permeable, coated film prepared as in Example 3 + 50g/m2 polypropylene spunbonded nonwoven fabric support layer, e (side towards cavity) = 0.22
Table 4 therefore shows the effect of changing the emissivity of the upper boundary surface of □ 25rrer thick, unvenlitaled air cavity from >0.6 to 0.22 with the lower hound a ry surfacc of the air cavity being formed by one of the outer surfaces of a standard multi-foil insulation product. The thermal resistance of 1ha whole insulation structure, multi-foil insulation plus unventilated air cavities is thus improved by the additional use of a single, low emissivity roof underlay having a thickness of only 0.4mm.

Air leakage is an important factor in energy loss in buildings and a roofing underlay can contribute significantly to a reduction in air leakage. The air permeability of the laminated reflective insulation material (laminate) of Example 3 Is compared in Table 5 to those of two commercially available moisture vapour permeable reflective products: an aluminised microporous product manufactured and marketed by Du Pont under the trade mark Tyvek© Reflex® and a micro-perforated wall breather membrane manufactured under the trade mark Da Hex ReHectash eld™ by Don & Low Limited.
Table 5; Comparison of air permeability
Product type Air Permeability, mrn.s"1 M
Reflective laminate of this invention Coated non-porous film laminate Zero 10
Tyvek Rnflnit Coated microporous nonwoven 0.3 10
Reflectashfeld Micro-perforated film laminate 19.3 10
Test information:
BS EN ISO $237:1GQE Test area = 5.0 cm* Presure drop = £00 Pa

Since laminates made using the reflective coaled film substrate of this invention have zero air permeability, building products such as Insulation products and roof underlays made In accordance with this invention can provide a significant contribution to the reduction in air leakage
of the building in which they ere installed especially if overlaps ere battened or taped with an adhesive tape along their length.
The structure described for use as a low emissivity, air and liquid water impermeable, moisture vapour permeable roofing underlay may also be suitable for use in walls as a component variously and interchangeably described as a wall membrane, breather membrane, wall breather membrane or house-wrap and here referred to as a wall membrane. Such membranes are attached to the inner "frame structure adjacent to the air cavity between the frame structure and the outer component wall. The frame may be of timber or limber-based components such as oriented strip board for example, but might be of steel. Such a frame structure, showing the location of the wall membrane, is illustrated in Figure 3 by way of explanation. The low emissivity wall membrane of this invention, 6, provides protection for the frame structure consisting of the sheathing board, which may ber for example, oriented strand board, 14, tha studs, 15, between which is placed insulation malerial 10, located between the sheathing board 14 and plasterboard 17,
Such protection especially important during construction before the outer wall, 19, is in places It also protects the frame structure from the effects of any moisture which may condense in the cold air cavity, 1B. The low emissivity surface, 2, facing into the cavity, 18, increases the thermal resistance of the air layer in the cavity. This advantage is well understood and is described, for example, in Patent Applications EP 1331 316 A1 assigned to Thermal Economics, WQ 2006/024013 A1 assigned to Du Pont and GB2 383 815B assigned to Don & Low Ltd discussed earlier However, the low emissivity wail membrane of this invention Lias the advantage of significant higher moisture vapour permeability combined with very high liquid water resistance than prior art products. This s illustrated In Table 6 In which a coated lowemiesivily film of this invention (mace accord ng to Example 4) has been compared to a commercially available micro-perforated film laminate sold as a wall membrane under the trade mark Daltex Reflectashioid™ and manufactured by Don & Low limited and to an aluminised microporous product marketed under the trade mark Tyvek® Reflex® and manufactured by Du Pont.
Table 6. Comparison ot breathable, low emissivity laminates
Reftectashfeld® (Micro-perforated) Tyvek® Reflex® {Microporous] Coated Laminate of this Invention (Example
Basis weight, gfm* 120 B5 152

Table 5. Comparison of breathable, low emissivity laminates
Reflectashleld® Tyvek® Reflex® Coated laminate of
(Mi cno-perfo rated) (Microporous) this Invention
(Example 4)
Moisture vapour
permeability (MVTR), 578 593 1276
Emissivity 0.21 0.19 0.1 S
Hydroslatic head, cm 34 average £10 average >500
HjO 33 minimum 185 minimum i-500
Test Information
Basis weight Nominal quoled values for ReHettashleld© and Tyvek® Rsflex®, confirmed by
measuring average of 10 samples to BS EN 1649-2::2001.
MVTR: 23"C, RH, Lyssy Model
Emissivity: ASTM C1371-9S, using a model AE Emissnmrter.
Hydrostatic* honri: RS FN at fiQtyn/min taking 1h(i rindpninr thn firct hmnkthmugh.
Average of three tosts. Laminate of this invention did not show any signs of water breakthrough al
a hydrostatic head of 500cm when the lest was stopped.

Thus, the data presented in Table 6 shows that the laminate of this invention Is considerably superior to the micro perforated and microporous products in respect of moisture vapour penneability and hydrostatic head whilst having a very similar emissivity.
The reflective membrane component oF this invention may alternatively be laminated directly 1o a rigid componerl of a building, for example to the sheathing board of a frame construction building. In this case, the rigid component, for example oriented strip board (OSB) sheathing, is the support layer of the "aminate of this invention Th s would only be practical for app ical an in a factory environment where frame sections, complete with their wall membrane and optionally with insulation, are manufactured as neady-to-assembte units since the reflective membrane component is insjffidently robust to withstand the rigors of on-site application.
The Applicants UK Patent Application published eg GB 2436338 discloses how infrared reflective structures, alternatively described as low emissivity structures, can increase the tharmal insulation of buildings by ensuring that unventilated air spaces are bounded by at least three such low emissivity surfaces. It describes the relationship between the thermal resistance of the
unventilated air apace and the emissivity dt the surfaces adjacent ID the air spaces, The low emissivity layers may be arrang&d to bound one or more unventilated air cavities wit (tout the requirement for waddings or other "spacer" or separation layers between the low emissivity layers taking advantage of the very low thermal conductivity value of air. 0.025 W/mK. Laminates of this invention would be suitable for use as low emissivity layers for the invention described in GB 2436338 especially in the configuration described as particularly advantageous when both opposing surfaces bounding the air cavity are low emissivity so that one surface will reflect incident radiation whilst the opposing surface wilt absorb very title incident radiation.
The reflective membrane component (reflective coated film substrate) of this invention is preferably regenerated cellulose and coated, as described, with a thin reflective coating layer. The coating layer of this invention may be synthetic in the sense that it may be derived from oil or mineral-based raw materials whilst the regenerated cellulose which forms the substrate layer is derived from renewable vegetable sources, usually frees. Since oil and minerals are finite resources they arc regarded as non-renewable. As they become increasingly scarce, prices will increase and their conservation becomes increasingly 1 important, The use of materials based on natural or renewable raw materials is therefore an advantage and contributes to the reduction in the use of non-renewable materials. If the coating layer is based on synthetic non-renewable materials, expressing the upper limit of the preferred coating layer weight of this invention, 2.5g'm2, as a percentage of the lowest substrate weight gives the maximum percentage of iron- renewable content for the reflective membrane component of this invention. The lowest preferred thickness of the film substrate of this invention is 15pm. At a density of 1.44 [the density of regenerated cellulose} the substrate basis weight is 21.6g/m£. Hence the maximum percentage of non-renewable based material in preferred reflective membrane components of this invention is (2.5 x 100y{21.6+2.5) = 10.4% by weight. A similar calculation based on a specific structure, a 0.3g/m2 coaling weight on a 20pm regenerated cellulose film gives a non-renewable content of only 2,7%. If the support layer of the insulating material of this invention is also based on renewable raw materials then the percentage of non-renewable material In the laminate of this invention may be extremely low ije. considerably tower than 1% hy weight.
Support layers of this type may he based on wool, cotton, flax, jnle, or similar textile fihnes or may themselves be based on regenerated cellulose for example, viscose fibres, or may be mixtures of such fibres. The support layer may be to the form of traditional textiles for example woven or knitted fabrics, or may be in the form of nonwoven fabrics including those formed by hyoroentanglement. carding and latex bonding technology, needling, latex spray bonding or
similar methods or consolidating fibrous webs Known in the art used singly or in combination. Support layers comprising predominantly renewable raw material fibres may be combined with a minority of synthetic fibres including b component fibres. The tatter may be used to consolidate the fabric by thermally bonding the predominantly renewable fibre web. Alternatively the support layer may be a paper or a wet-laid nonwoven or a material comprising predominantly short length fibres reinforced by longer textile fibres. A paper reinforced by viscose fibres would be an example
By using a coated regenerated cellulose film laminated to a renewable support layer i.e. a support layer comprised wholly or predominantly of fibres which are renewable or derived from renewable materials, multi-layer insulation products, roofing underlays, wall membranes and other reflective building insulation products of this invention may be made which are wholly or predominantly
An example of such a multi-layer insulation product based predominantly on renewable materials s given in Figure 4 to which reference will now be made.
A multi-layer insulation material constituted by a product 20 includes outer layers of the laminated nsulation material of this invention 6a comprising a reflective membrane component [reflectivc coated film substrate such as 3 in Figure 1) laminated to a needled wool nonwoven or wool fell support layer welded along the long or machine direction edges as indicated at 21, ss by ultrasonic bonding for example. The welded ouler layers 6a enclose an insulation care 22 compnsing alternating layers of laminates Bb of this invention in which a reflective membrane component 23 is laminated to a lightly needled wool fleece or wadding 24 which acts to maintain a space of at least 5rnm between the reflective membrane components 23 or 6a. An insiiaticin core 22, comprises three layers of laminate 6b, However, It will be appreciated that the number of such layers 6b may vary according to the insulation performance and application required.
Various modifications may be made to the embodiments and examples herein deserted wilh out departing from the scope of the indention as defined in the appended claims. For example, it will be appreciated that other materials, based on renewable components may bs used as the support layer for the reflective coated film layer and as the space component 24 to produce a finished reflective insulation product based on predominantly renewable materials.
We claim:
1. An insulation material for use in or when used in building and/or construction , includin a moisture vapour permeable, liquid water and air impermeable monolithic, dimensionally stable substrate layer bearing an overlying moisture vapour permeable, liquid water impermeable, low emissivity layer applied as a thin organic coating containing inframed reflective matter.
2. An insulation material as claimed in claim 1. wherein the low emissivity layer provides an emissivity on one coated surface on the substrate layer of less than 0.5, and the substrate and low emissivity layers are selected such that the reflective coated substrate layer has a moisture vapour permeability greater than 1000g/m2/day.
3. An insulation material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the substate layer comprises an organic bio polymer, selected from carbohydrates, starched, cellulose, glycogen, hemicellulose, chitin fructan, insulin lignin and/or pectin based materials), gums, proteins (animal or vegetable), colloids, hydrocolloid, polygalactic, cellulose or materials based on paper technology.
4. An insulation material as claimed IN claim 3, wherein the substrate layer is made of cellulose, a cellulose derivative or regenerated cellulose.
5. An insulation material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the substrate layer has a thickness in the range from 15 pm to 350 mil including any value or sub-range of value; falling in this range.
6. An insulation material as claimed in claim wherein the coating comprises any one or more of cellulose derivatives, synthetic organic polymer";, naturally occurring polymers and their derivatives.
7. An insulation material as claimed in claim 6. wherein the coating comprises one or more of the following cellulose derivatives: cellulose ethers, esters and nitrocellulose.
8. An insulation material as claimed in claim 6. wherein the coating comprises one or more of the: following synthetic organic polymers' poly acrylic esters, polyvinyl acetate copolymers, polyurethanes, polysulfornes and polyvinyl alcohol copolymers.
10. An msiilalion liiiikrid as clan LLL'LI IIL claim 1, wherein I lie Mock CLO Diviner is suktled from ATIV one in' more nl sLvrcrie MiLaiLiciic resins MI id hydro]!Inlie ]ntlyLncll lanes including p:ilyetilcr ureLliuiics. pMydlier urd lianiii, polycarboiiM Ic mell nines UTI;I polyurdtiaTie uvea pMynieis.
.2. AIL insululioii iLialcrijil AS claimed in claim I. WHEREIN the rufleelive ITIHLICT in IIIL CTWli:IIJ[ eoinpiisey -i dispersion of a pigiroiL.
.j. AIL insulation male™] us claimed in elaiiri .2, wherdn llie piijiNcul i-s a uidjil pi LTI IICIII or a pipneril which j!TL>.eiils a reflccHve TTLCLJIHL siuTitcc.
. 1. An iii>ub:lion nialcrial us claimed ii: claim 12. wherein lho jncmenl is u miiLei nl plyuiLTil HILL! is selecled from liUiss m mica haviim etjaLed rcfleelive ILLL'IJL! surfaces.
.^I. ALL irisnhilitini nialcrial as claimed in claim 1. whencin I lie rellcclive INJILI.LT and A CTW liiiij; liniler arc prcacnl in I IIL coaling in llie raLio van ainc lioni LO 1:1ft intliKlinjs any VHIIIC ;H' sub-range of values fullinyni lliis rHTiyc.
.6. An lTiMilaLitiii iLUjIeiia] us claim-sil in claim 1. wherein Llie nulling has a linsis vvaiflil per uiiil Jiieii in llie iaii .7. ATI iiisululiou uujleiial as claimed in eluini I. and lieing jiredou [inanity derived Iron) si LSI nililib!e LIT r-ifTiewablernw mul.eriab.
.S. An insulalion male™] IOT L^S in. or when iLsed in, building aiid-m eoTislrucLion incliiiliny IL subhlraLe laya hearing M.TI overlying juibslanliiilly CI>TI1 inNOILK M.Llhereril Ihin LOW eiriissivily emling layer C4.1-ITTJJRIS-ITIY a bUiek copolymer enenpsi ilal ing IL JJHI l.ieulaLe nielai or nielal-ctsaled pimiienl. m inlrar-Hl reliedive inaUidT. Lliiil jjiuvides an Ldiuis^iv ily UTI llie totiLed Miilacij iiJ'lht?
wib I !>. An insulation material as ckiimed in claim 1^, wherein the block copolymer is selected IT'OITI ma I dials vdiiuli allow hi gli IraTislcr til" moisl lire vapour by moloeulm" diU'iisum and have polymer chains comprising Ligii and low erystallinity sections.
20. An insulation material as claimed in claim IS, wherein block copolymer is selected from any one oi more uf sLyreu*; tuLadicne rcsiiis and hydrupiulic polyiuvlimiics including polyester urenlisnes, polyether lirethanes. polycarbonate methanes and polyurethane .irea polymers.
21. AIL iiiiiikiliou material tii claimed ill claim ^kciein lhe iuibslrale Liver i? a muiioiiLljif film.
21. An insidalioTi maltrial dunned, in claim IS. ulierem llie iiilwlralecwjipnse::; a cellultwe derivative or regenerated cclhilosc.
23. An insulation material for in. or when used in, bnildins and-or constmction including a subslTaLe layer hearinij overlying low eniixsivily eiialing layer ci leaps ukil.iTijj parlieulale infrared reflective matter, rhe coated surface of tke substrate layer having au emis&mty of less
II nil i 0..^ anil I lie relleclive coaled subsLraIc layer having a moisl lire vapuuy |iermealriliLy uf'al lea^t g/m'Alay.
21. Ail insulation material as claimed in claim 25, wherein the substrate layer is laminated to a supper I layer' LIL-jviny a slren£L1I which IS ACL-JLCI lhan lka1 I?F llie siibslrale layer.
2?-. An iuiukiliun imilaiai as claimed in chilli. 24. wheteiu lhv supptxl iay^' is kiminalcd 1o rhe aubirrate Lr.yer bv intermittent adhesive bonding.
26. A amlri-layer insulation product having oppositely facing side edgev and including n plurality of inner aii and water vapour permeable insulating wadding layers and at lca?t one innei lefleelive layer ^qmialiny I wo ijjid waddiny lnyei^,, IIIL? inner layenn beiiii; ;iHTidwiehed between fust and second outer layers of an insulating material as claimed in claim 24.
27. A multi-layer msulation product as claimed in claim 20. wherein at least one mner Tcllcclivc lava cuin| irises an insubil.i 29. A multi-layer insulation product as claimcd in claim 26, wherein the support layer of the insulating material of the outer layers comprises a nonwoven tabrie.
30. Use of a laminated insulation material as eiaimxl in claim 24 in. or as. roofing insulation or a roofing underlay in building,
31. Use of a laminated insulation material as claimed in claim 24 in, or as. wail insulation in a building.
32. Use of a laminated insulation material or product as claimed in claim 24 in or as. floor insula I ion in a building.
An insulation material (3) for use in, or when used in, building and/or construction, including a moisture vapour permeable, liquid water and air impermeable, monolithic, dimensionally stable, substrate layer (1 ) bearing an overlying moisture vapour permeable, liquid water impermeable, low emissivity layer (2) applied as a thin organic coating containing infrared reflective matter. The substrate layer (1 ) may be laminated to a support layer (5) having a strength which is greater than that of the substrate layer by an intermittent adhesive 4. Figure 1 is the representative figure.



Patent Number 268413
Indian Patent Application Number 514/MUMNP/2010
PG Journal Number 36/2015
Publication Date 04-Sep-2015
Grant Date 28-Aug-2015
Date of Filing 15-Mar-2010
Applicant Address Batchworth Lock House 99 Church Street Rickmansworth Hertfordshire WD3 1JJ United Kingdom.
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
PCT International Classification Number C08J 7/04,B32B 27/12,C09D 175/04
PCT International Application Number PCT/GB2008/002885
PCT International Filing date 2008-08-22
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 0716402.3 2007-08-22 U.K.